The Muslim question in Late Imperial Russia is investigated via the deceptive strategeis of a Muslim jornalist, an impostor and double-dealer; M.-B. Hadjetlaché.. A micro-historical approach is developped.
Academic Bibliography of Syriac and Christian Arabic Studies in Russian published in 2019.
Russian migrant communities in Europe, as well as the USSR and European states’ policies towards them, were sufficiently studied in English-, French- and Russian-language relevant scholarship. However, West and South Asia received significantly less attention, although the region served the main transit zone in this process, especially the countries such as Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan and even British India. During the interwar period hundreds of thousands of migrants from Soviet Russia either passed through these Southern regions towards Europe and the United States or founded their migrant communities there. These migrants became an integral part of political activism professed by Russian émigré communities all over the world in the 1920s-30s. This quite often resulted in them being manipulated on a massive scale by other governments in their foreign policies toward Soviet Russia, especially by Britain – Russia’s traditional rival in the region. On the other hand, the positions of the Soviet government in political and military terms toward its southern neighbours were significantly stronger than those in Europe. Having an upper hand in its relations with these states, the Soviet government would resort to military invasions, large-scale intelligence operations, the massive bribing of local police and the military, particularly in the border areas, as well as to imposing inter-state border-control treaties, − all this done with the aim to neutralise the anti-Soviet émigré activities and to physically liquidate their active representatives abroad as well as to conduce to the repatriation of larger numbers for subsequent prosecution on the Soviet territory.
Methodologically drawing on the most recent works in Migration Studies, in general, and in Russian Emigré Studies, in particular, the current research studies migration from the USSR into the neighbouring countries of West and South Asia – one of the most strategically important regions in the twentieth century. Within the timeframe 1917-1930, research looks into the phenomena, such as displaced statehood, political activism and cross-cultural interaction in the context of the migration policies of the relevant states (Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Britain and the USSR). The primary-source base of this research consists of mostly untapped documents from British, Russian, French, Turkish, Azerbaijani, Iranian archives and the International Institute of Social History, Amsterdam, collections as well as memoirs and private correspondence of migrants themselves. While highlighting some commonalities, the paper argues that the situation of Russian migrant communities in West and South Asia diametrically differed from the one in Western Europe, and puts forward a detailed analysis of the causes, developments and outcomes of this phenomenon.
An important yet still understudied category of religious vocabulary in the Septuagint are words denoting practitioners and practices which would fall under the category of ‘magic’ and ‘sorcery’. Such words are found among almost all the genres of the Old Testament books: in the legislative texts of the Pentateuch prohibiting these practices, in accusatory contexts of the historical and prophetic books, and in the more neutral narrative passages describing how people appeal to soothsayers and sorcerers. My inquiry will focus not so much on the magical practices as such, but rather on the terminology denoting sorcerers, magicians and what they did, the contexts in which this vocabulary was used, as well as attitudes demonstrated in respect to them in different texts. The list of the words examined in the paper is not exhaustive and is confined to the terms μάγος, φάρμακος, ἐπῳδός and their cognates, i.e. the main roots which were used to speak about magic in the Classical Greek language.
The paper1 presents a comparative analysis of burial assemblages of ‘barbarian’ élites located on the territory of the Crimea between Chersonesos Taurica and the Bosporan kingdom dating from the 3rd century BC to the 3rd century AD. The main goal of the research is to define indications of self-identities of the Crimean non-urban societies represented by their élites and to outline their networking inside and outside the peninsula as well as their changes during four chronological periods. The research is based on the precondition that networking in the political sphere is closely connected to the exchange of symbols of power and status. In material culture, such symbols might be represented by the so-called ‘prestige objects’. Changes in the assortment of these items observed over a long time-span are helping to visualize the development of internal and external relationships of social élites.
Slavery and Empire in Central Asia, by Jeff Eden (Cambridge: Cambridge U.P., 2018; pp. 227. £75).
In the present article, a description of one of the variant stories based on the Rāmāyaṇa is offered. It is Kucalavaṉ katai (The Story of Kusalavan) in the Tamil language, composed in a form which is usually, by Western and also Indian scholars, defined by the English term ‘ballad’. But its original name is katai, i.e. kathā in Sanskrit (‘story’), or pāṭṭu (‘song’).
Late Imperial Russia’s multifaceted presence in Persia retains many fascinating life-stories of its actors, who often exerted crucial influence on the course of the history of Russian-Iranian relations of the time. Drawing on international scholarship about the Russian-Iranian relationships at the turn of the twentieth century, but mostly on documents from Russian and Georgian archives and the diaries of his contemporaries as well as his own private notes, this article examines the activities of Seraia Shapshal (1873-1961), focusing on his embeddedness both in the Qajar court and in Late Imperial Russia’s policy towards Iran during the period 1900 to 1908. The paper for the first time in Iranian studies sheds light in sufficient detail upon how Shapshal found himself in Persia and what enabled him to reach the highest levels of power at the Qajar court. In so doing, it also identifies his leading role in the June 1908 anti-constitution coup.
The title of this paper refers back to Albrecht Goetze’s masterpiece “The t‑Form of the Old Babylonian Verb” (Goetze 1936), wherein he made a successful attempt to distinguish derivational meanings of the t‑infix (t‑stems) from inflectional ones, which came to be known as the t‑Perfect. The OB (and OA) t‑Perfect (i.e., iptaras) is a manifestation of perfect as a cross-linguistic grammatical value, alongside, e.g., the English Present Perfect or the Castilian Spanish Pretérito Perfecto. The t‑Perfect was not a Proto-Semitic inflectional verb form but emerged in Akkadian via upgrade (i.e., inflectionalization) of the derivational verbal t‑affix that existed in PS as a part of the inherited Afroasiatic patrimony. In other words, the Gt Preterite shape (iptaras) penetrated the G-stem paradigm as a new tense form, the t‑Perfect, while one of the meanings of the Gt-stem became the semantic source of the Akkadian t‑Perfect.
The Festschrift containing 37 contributions celebrates the scholarly achievements of the two outstanding Assyriologists, Walter Sommerfeld (University of Marburg) and Manfred Krebernik (University of Jena). The primary focus of the volume corresponds to the main topics of interests of Professors Sommerfeld and Krebernik – Pre-Sargonic and Sargonic Mesopotamia and third millennium Syria. The volume also features a few contributions dealing with Sumerian language, Mesopotamian literature and the early history of Akkadian and its Semitic background.
Second half of 19th century–1945 was the period of drastic changes in Japanese society, the time of building the nation-state and the Great Japanese Empire, based on the unity of all Japanese people. Political reforms and the ideology of this period are well investigated. However, there are few studies of how the Japanese themselves and people's worldview have changed. The article focuses on the emotional transformations of the Japanese during this period and based on official historical documents, writings of publicists, poetry and prose. One consequence of such a rapid changes was, in particular, the dramatic increase in number of mental illnesses and suicides during the Meiji period. Shared exaltation was a characteristic feature of the era, the most important government decisions were made on a sudden impulse. Literature (especially the new shintaishi poetry contributed to the popular feelings excitement, and openly promoted xenophobia. The belief in the superiority of the Japanese spirit over matter dictated decisions that were insane in military-practical terms. Thus, in 1941 Japan attacked the main US naval base in the Pacific – Pearl Harbor. The decision that led to the collapse of the empire.
The book deals with the history of Japanese waka poetry (Japanese songs). The study is built around official anthologies "by imperial decree", which were collected from the beginning of the 10th century until the middle of the 15th century. There are 21 such anthologies in the history of poetry. The main issues considered in the study are: the variety of forms of Japanese poems, united by the concept of waka; composition of imperial anthologies; conducting poetry events - meetings and tournaments; composition of poems "on the topic"; rules for recording poems by poets at poetry meetings; "copyright" in Japanese medieval poetry, a list of "words that have a master". Japanese poets themselves, authors of the karon texts (“about poetry”) speak about poetry: Ki no Tsurayuki, Fujiwara no Kinto, Minamoto no Toshiyori, Fujiwara no Kiyosuke, Fujiwara no Shunzei, Kamo no Chomei, Fujiwara no Teika, Fujiwara no Tameie, Shotetsu. The book contains translations of several poetry collections and cycles that have not previously been translated into Russian.
This article examines the role of fear motifs in the construction of author’s subjectivity in the “fighting” memoirs (published in 2001—2002) of two Soviet medievalists: the leader of the so called non-official medieval studies, A. Gurevitch, and a representative of the Soviet historical establishment, E. Gutnova. Whereas both authors see fear as the product of the repressive Soviet regime, engendering silence and slavery, Gutnova uses the discourse of fear to victimize and justify the “hers” collectively suffering under the regime’s pressure, while Gurevitch contrasts the “his” as active agency to “silent majority”. Links with the romantic ideals of the non-official Soviet humanities, the structure of the dissidents’ memoirs, and general vision of history are discussed.
The article is dedicated to the travel records in the diary of «Izayoi nikki» written by the nun Abutsu (1222? –1283), which reflected the great literary era. Abutsu describes his journey in dark colors, a drizzling rain, a traveling dress that does not dry out of tears, and endless fear for the future of poetry, for the lives of children and her own are the leitmotifs of the diary. By this diary, Abutsu declares her readiness to become an adherent of the poetic tradition of the house of Mikohidari after the death of her husband, the famous poet Fujiwara-no Tameie, and transfer this knowledge to their son Tamesuke. The travel records are the central part of the diary, small in volume, but containing an impressive number of quotations and allusions to the most significant works of predecessors. The diary is written in the travel diary paradigm, which formed by the second half of the Kamakura period, and is similar in composition to the diaries «Kaidōki» and «Tōkan kikō» written in the same 13th century. For 14 days, Abutsu takes notes on her forced journey from Heian to Kamakura: short prose sketches frame 55 poems of tankа that she composes while visiting or passing by famous places on the way Tōkaidō. The article also provides a commented translation of the travel records in Russian.
“Victims of Their Faith,” by Dr. Touraj Atabaki and Dr. Lana Ravandi-Fadai, explores the fates of the first generation of Iranian communists in the Soviet Union, many of whom made significant contributions to the development of Soviet Iranian studies and were later engulfed in a dark period of Soviet history that touched on all republics and ethnicities within the Soviet Union — the Stalinist repressions of the 1930s. The authors bring to bear original research from archives in Russia, Iran, Azerbaijan and other countries to reconstruct the histories of these political activists, revolutionaries and scholars. Soviet case files and investigatory materials are examined here for the first time, providing new insights and correctives to previous studies. Forces and pressures at work during this troubled time render the application of accustomed categories of behavior problematic. Many of the subjects of this study were well aware of the stakes and prepared to sacrifice themselves for a future good in which they fervently believed. Taking into account the larger historical canvas, the book situates these individuals in the context of the early communist movement in Iran and demonstrates how the evolving socio-political atmosphere in the Soviet Union during the decades prior to World War II first enabled the Iranian communists, especially within the burgeoning school of “Red Orientalism,” and then led to their destruction, imprisonment, and marginalization.