An important yet still understudied category of religious vocabulary in the Septuagint are words denoting practitioners and practices which would fall under the category of ‘magic’ and ‘sorcery’. Such words are found among almost all the genres of the Old Testament books: in the legislative texts of the Pentateuch prohibiting these practices, in accusatory contexts of the historical and prophetic books, and in the more neutral narrative passages describing how people appeal to soothsayers and sorcerers. My inquiry will focus not so much on the magical practices as such, but rather on the terminology denoting sorcerers, magicians and what they did, the contexts in which this vocabulary was used, as well as attitudes demonstrated in respect to them in different texts. The list of the words examined in the paper is not exhaustive and is confined to the terms μάγος, φάρμακος, ἐπῳδός and their cognates, i.e. the main roots which were used to speak about magic in the Classical Greek language.
Second half of 19th century–1945 was the period of drastic changes in Japanese society, the time of building the nation-state and the Great Japanese Empire, based on the unity of all Japanese people. Political reforms and the ideology of this period are well investigated. However, there are few studies of how the Japanese themselves and people's worldview have changed. The article focuses on the emotional transformations of the Japanese during this period and based on official historical documents, writings of publicists, poetry and prose. One consequence of such a rapid changes was, in particular, the dramatic increase in number of mental illnesses and suicides during the Meiji period. Shared exaltation was a characteristic feature of the era, the most important government decisions were made on a sudden impulse. Literature (especially the new shintaishi poetry contributed to the popular feelings excitement, and openly promoted xenophobia. The belief in the superiority of the Japanese spirit over matter dictated decisions that were insane in military-practical terms. Thus, in 1941 Japan attacked the main US naval base in the Pacific – Pearl Harbor. The decision that led to the collapse of the empire.
The book deals with the history of Japanese waka poetry (Japanese songs). The study is built around official anthologies "by imperial decree", which were collected from the beginning of the 10th century until the middle of the 15th century. There are 21 such anthologies in the history of poetry. The main issues considered in the study are: the variety of forms of Japanese poems, united by the concept of waka; composition of imperial anthologies; conducting poetry events - meetings and tournaments; composition of poems "on the topic"; rules for recording poems by poets at poetry meetings; "copyright" in Japanese medieval poetry, a list of "words that have a master". Japanese poets themselves, authors of the karon texts (“about poetry”) speak about poetry: Ki no Tsurayuki, Fujiwara no Kinto, Minamoto no Toshiyori, Fujiwara no Kiyosuke, Fujiwara no Shunzei, Kamo no Chomei, Fujiwara no Teika, Fujiwara no Tameie, Shotetsu. The book contains translations of several poetry collections and cycles that have not previously been translated into Russian.
This textbook is designed for students enrolled in the program "Language and Literature of Iran" who have already mastered the basics of the modern Persian language. The corpus of texts in classical Persian is one of the most important source-study bases for Iranian philology, and a fundamental study of classical Persian in theoretical and practical aspects is of great importance for the students who aim to specialize in this field. Meanwhile, the specific features of the classical language are usually noted in a list attached to the grammars of modern Persian; there are still no special manuals or textbooks combining the grammar topics with rich illustrative material. Our book on Classic Persian is a guide for students who read and translate a lot of monuments of Persian poetry and prose within the curriculum of the "Language and Literature of Iran" program. It will instill in them the skills of philological analysis they need to succeed in their profession.
The textbook consists of an introduction, thirty-three lessons and Appendix. Each lesson includes a main text (a fragment of Persian poetry or prose of the 9th – 15th cc.), provided with lexical and grammatical commentary, a grammar theme extensively illustrated with examples, one or two exercises on the grammar of the lesson, and additional text intended for students’ homework. The Appendix provides essential information on the metrics of aruz and patterns of rhyme used in Persian poetry; it gives basic metric paradigms for all the poems included in the lessons’ texts.
The article is mainly based upon the analysis of two Japanese texts, Jinkokuki (“Records of the people and the provinces”, 16th century) and its later revised version Shin Jinkokuki (“New records of the people and the provinces”), created by a confucianist scholar and cartographer Seki Soko in 1701. The latter is often considered to be one of the first Japanese atlases as Seki not only revised and enlarged the original text, but also added maps to the descriptions of all of the Japanese provinces. Both texts are valued by Japanese scholars as fruitful sources for studies in the history of environmental psychology, or geopsychology, and a careful study of its’ content provides some new information on the ideas and concepts of natural habitats’ influence on the formation of behavioral models and personal qualities typical to the inhabitants of certain areas within Japan in 16th-18th centuries. In the first half of the 20th century some Japanese authors, many of them playing leading roles in the introduction of western science into Japan, were obsessed with the idea of formulating typically Japanese way of thinking and behaving, that would not only differentiate the Japanese from others, but also make the nation consider itself better than those others. The search for roots of yamato-damashii and Japanese uniqueness in terms of relations between the Japanese people and the country’s nature, just as an attempt to make some certain values of the samurai class nationwide revitalized interest in Jinkokuki and Shin Jinkokuki, which were used as an instrument of state propaganda. The second part of this article analyses works by Watanabe Tooru, a psychologist who issued the first scholary publication of these texts and who’s academic career seems to be a one long road to “Records of the people and the provinces”.
There is published a female burial in the catacomb 1119 of Ust’-Al’ma necropolis situated on the southwestern shore of the Crimea. There are found personal jewellery (gold ear-rings, amphora-pendants and beads of a necklace, sewn plaques) as well as grave goods (gold leaves of a funeral wreath, gold eye-pieces, two hand-formed ceramic incense-burners, a ceramic jug, an iron knife, a ceramic unguentarium of the bulbous type, a ceramic red-slip bowl, two ceramic spindle-whorls). The grave might belong to a representative of social elite, and dates to the period from the first half to the middle of the 1st century AD.
In the first, still unpublished, volume of The Blessed Compendium (al-Majmūʿ al-mubārak)—the historical work of the 13th-century Arabic-speaking Christian writer al-Makīn ibn al-ʿAmīd, there is a chapter on the Byzantine Emperor Theodosius II the Younger (r. 402–450). In this chapter, Ibn al-ʿAmīd retells the famous story of Moses of Crete, “who appeared among the Jews” and declared himself to be the Messiah to subsequent tragic disappointment of those who believed in him. The present article discusses this story and suggests an explanation for the discrepancies between Ibn al-ʿAmīd’s and its Arabic source—the Book of the Heading (Kitāb al-ʿUnwān) of Agapius of Manbij (Hierapolis).
Outline of the connections between Vikings (Varangians, Rus') and Central Asia, in particular their link to the trade on the Silk Road
This contribution offers to the readers a publication and translation (with linguistic and philological commentaries) of a recently discovered piece of Old Amharic poetry, possibly dating to the first half/middle of the 17th century. The published text bears the title Märgämä kəbr (“Condemnation of glory”), but its content differs from that of several other Old Amharic poems (not entirely independent from each other) known under the same title. It is only the general idea and the main topics that are shared by all Märgämä kəbr poems: transience of the earthly world, the inevitability of death and of God’s judgement, and the necessity of leading virtuous life.
One can thus speak of Märgämä kəbr as a special genre of early Amharic literature, probably originally belonging to the domain of oral literature and used to address the Christian community with the aim of religious education and admonition of the laymen.
The following conjecture is proposed: 'New Apuleius' 3.20 Stover (p. 100) qui negantis Stover (quis negantis cod.): qui suae gentis Shumilin.
The article analyzes an areal polysemy ‘earth/year’ in the languages of North America. The distribution of the trait largely coincides with the cultural region of California. Within this area, the polysemy ‘earth/year’ is attested from Molala in the north to Seri in the south. The trait in question is apparently old in Yuman, Chumashan and Yuki-Wappo, whereas Uto-Aztecan languages acquired it as a result of contact with other families. However, a number of outliers are attested outside California: languages of the Northern Plains and adjoining regions of Great Lakes (Winnebago, Lakota-Dakota, Skiri Pawnee, Menominee), Southeastern Tepehuan and Oaxaca Chontal. These may result from prehistoric migrations. Presence of this polysemy in Northern Plains languages can be connected to the eastward migration of Algonquian speakers from the Proto-Algic homeland possibly located in the Fraser River basin. The case of Southeastern Tepehuan is possibly due to prehistoric contacts between Proto-Tepiman and Yuman languages, with the subsequent southward migration of Southeastern Tepehuan speakers. Oaxaca Chontal belongs to a hypothetical Hokan family, whose other branches are located in California. Moreover, Oaxaca Chontal word for ‘earth/year’ is cognate to words with the same meaning in Yuman and Seri.
Academic bibliography of Syriac and Christian Arabic Studies in Russian.
This note presents black-figure pottery from the excavations of the ancient settlement of Menekse Çatağı (‘Violet crossroads’). It is located on the north-west shore of the Sea of Marmara, 12 km north-east of Tekirdağ. The site was excavated between 1993 and 2007. The collection consists of 27 fragmented vessels. By the form they are divided into tableware and vessels for oil and perfumes. The collection covers the period from the second half of the 6th to the first half of the 5th century BC.
In this paper, I attempt to compare the relative rates of replacement of basic vocabulary items (from the 100-item Swadesh list) over four specific checkpoints in the history of the Chinese language: Early Old Chinese (as represented by documents such as The Book of Songs), Classic Old Chinese, Late Middle Chinese (represented by the language of The Record of Linji), and Modern Chinese. After a concise explication of the applied methodology and a detailed presentation of the data, it is shown that the average rates of replacement between each of these checkpoints do not significantly deviate from each other and are generally compatible with the classic «Swadesh constant» of 0.14 loss per millennium; furthermore, these results correlate with other similar observed situations, e.g. for the Greek language, though not with others (Icelandic). It is hoped that future similar studies on the lexical evolution of languages with attested written histories will allow to place these observations into a more significant context.
The purpose of this article is to research the continental prototypes for Fujiwara-no Kamatari Biography (the main part of “Toshi Kaden”/“The Fujiwara House Biography”). Kamatari was the key political figure of his time and one of the Japanese statehood fathers. Whereas the Chinese prototypes are well investigated, we could not say so about the Korean ones. However, Kamatari is compared with both Chinese and Korean statesmen. It is for this reason, that the paper focuses on the analysis of the possible Korean prototypes.
Report on the methods (geophysics, geomorphology, palaeobotany, micromycology) used in the fieldwork in the early medieval town of Dzhankent (Kazakhstan)
This chapter explores supernatural beliefs in the urban space of contemporary Beijing. It examines representations of traditional demonic characters and plots in modern urban culture, the ways in which they survive and adapt in new social and cultural contexts, forms of interaction between traditional and contemporary mass culture, and some specific features of Asian traditions of ghostlore and ghost storytelling. It also discusses demonology as a special realm of Chinese culture, and its main features and new functions in urban conditions, as well as various authorities which influence the content of the supernatural in the spaces of the capital.
This paper will discuss narratives and folk beliefs about hedgehogs in traditional
China and how they develop in modern society. In Chinese culture hedgehogs can
belong to the two different types of spirits: a hedgehog-demon, who can turn into
man or a sacred animal called Baixian (White immortal), one of the four or five
sacred animals, who were worshipped mostly in Northern China.
The cult of sacred animals was very popular until the middle of the 20th century and
becomes popular again nowadays, but only two of four animals, foxes and weasels
are still considered to be the powerful spirits. Nevertheless the hedgehog spirits still
remain in popular culture and the paper aims to analyze the transformation of its
functions and features in the network literature and messages.
Following pioneering ideas of Bojan Čop, this paper offers a brief sketch of a theory of the origin of Proto-Indo-European ablaut in the light of Indo-Uralic comparison. Starting from the assumption that Proto-Indo-Uralic phonotactics and morphophonology were essentially preserved in Proto-Uralic, but significantly changed in Proto-Indo-European, we trace the origin of Proto-Indo-European ablaut paradigms (mobile and acrostatic paradigms of root nouns, hysterokinetic, proterokinetic, amphikinetic and acrostatic paradigms of suffixed nouns). Each of these paradigms can be derived by a set of simple rules from the proposed Proto-Indo-Uralic reconstruction that is itself based on the conventional Proto-Uralic reconstruction.
The article explores the origins of Semitic color terms for yellow, green, and blue. These fundamental color categories are missing from the reconstructed proto-Semitic basic color term system, but their designations were added into basic color term systems of many daughter languages. This chapter focuses on derivations from designations of “referent objects” (objects typically characterized by a certain color and serving as referents for the designation of this color). Referent objects are further classified into natural objects (wax for yellow; vegetation, grass, or leaf for green; sky for blue) and dyes (saffron and turmeric for yellow; kohl and indigo, or indigo-colored objects for blue; the chapter also considers ink as a source for designations of blue-with-green, violet, or black).
Les volumes des deux grands dictionnaires contenant les entrées pour le(s) mot(s) ittum ont paru il y a plus d’un demi-siècle. Depuis, deux études détaillées du vocable, ainsi que plusieurs publications concernant ses aspects particuliers, on vu le jour ; le nombre d’attestations a aussi beaucoup augmenté. D’ailleurs, toutes les bonnes idées d’études antérieures à 1960 n’avaient pas trouvé leur chemin dans les dictionnaires. Il est donc temps de dresser un nouveau bilan sur le vocable ittum.
La présente étude ne porte que sur la langue paléobabylonienne, y compris le dialecte hymnico-épique. Les exemples du vocable provenant d’autres dialectes akkadiens, ainsi que les listes lexicales, ne seront cités que lorsque ce sera nécessaire pour éclaircir tel ou tel sens de ittum attesté en paléobabylonien.
Les résultats de l’investigation peuvent être résumés de la manière suivante. En paléobabylonien, il existe au moins deux mots homonymes, aux étymologies différentes :
- ittum « signe », remontant à la racine protosémitique nominale *ayat- « signe » ; les sens concrets attestés pour ce mot sont « signe omineux », « signe particulier » et « rappel » (§ 2).
- ittum « moment, date », provenant de la racine protosémitique verbale *wˤd « fixer l’heure » ; en particulier, la phrase ana ittīšu a un sens idiomatique « dans le délai d’un an » dans les contrats de prêt (§ 3).
Plusieurs attestations du vocable ittum proviennent de contextes problématiques. Certaines d’elles peuvent appartenir à des homonymes, ou des sens dérivés, d’ittum « signe » qui n’ont toujours pas été identifiés avec précision (§ 4). D’autres exemples présumés de ittum « signe » ou ittum « moment » ont disparu suite à la réinterprétation des contextes respectifs (§ 5). En particulier, les formes écrites i-da-at en paléobabylonien n’ont rien à voir avec ittum « signe » et doivent être attribuées à un mot différent (§ 6).