Academic Bibliography of Syriac and Christian Arabic Studies in Russian published in 2019.
Russian migrant communities in Europe, as well as the USSR and European states’ policies towards them, were sufficiently studied in English-, French- and Russian-language relevant scholarship. However, West and South Asia received significantly less attention, although the region served the main transit zone in this process, especially the countries such as Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan and even British India. During the interwar period hundreds of thousands of migrants from Soviet Russia either passed through these Southern regions towards Europe and the United States or founded their migrant communities there. These migrants became an integral part of political activism professed by Russian émigré communities all over the world in the 1920s-30s. This quite often resulted in them being manipulated on a massive scale by other governments in their foreign policies toward Soviet Russia, especially by Britain – Russia’s traditional rival in the region. On the other hand, the positions of the Soviet government in political and military terms toward its southern neighbours were significantly stronger than those in Europe. Having an upper hand in its relations with these states, the Soviet government would resort to military invasions, large-scale intelligence operations, the massive bribing of local police and the military, particularly in the border areas, as well as to imposing inter-state border-control treaties, − all this done with the aim to neutralise the anti-Soviet émigré activities and to physically liquidate their active representatives abroad as well as to conduce to the repatriation of larger numbers for subsequent prosecution on the Soviet territory.
Methodologically drawing on the most recent works in Migration Studies, in general, and in Russian Emigré Studies, in particular, the current research studies migration from the USSR into the neighbouring countries of West and South Asia – one of the most strategically important regions in the twentieth century. Within the timeframe 1917-1930, research looks into the phenomena, such as displaced statehood, political activism and cross-cultural interaction in the context of the migration policies of the relevant states (Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Britain and the USSR). The primary-source base of this research consists of mostly untapped documents from British, Russian, French, Turkish, Azerbaijani, Iranian archives and the International Institute of Social History, Amsterdam, collections as well as memoirs and private correspondence of migrants themselves. While highlighting some commonalities, the paper argues that the situation of Russian migrant communities in West and South Asia diametrically differed from the one in Western Europe, and puts forward a detailed analysis of the causes, developments and outcomes of this phenomenon.
An important yet still understudied category of religious vocabulary in the Septuagint are words denoting practitioners and practices which would fall under the category of ‘magic’ and ‘sorcery’. Such words are found among almost all the genres of the Old Testament books: in the legislative texts of the Pentateuch prohibiting these practices, in accusatory contexts of the historical and prophetic books, and in the more neutral narrative passages describing how people appeal to soothsayers and sorcerers. My inquiry will focus not so much on the magical practices as such, but rather on the terminology denoting sorcerers, magicians and what they did, the contexts in which this vocabulary was used, as well as attitudes demonstrated in respect to them in different texts. The list of the words examined in the paper is not exhaustive and is confined to the terms μάγος, φάρμακος, ἐπῳδός and their cognates, i.e. the main roots which were used to speak about magic in the Classical Greek language.
Late Imperial Russia’s multifaceted presence in Persia retains many fascinating life-stories of its actors, who often exerted crucial influence on the course of the history of Russian-Iranian relations of the time. Drawing on international scholarship about the Russian-Iranian relationships at the turn of the twentieth century, but mostly on documents from Russian and Georgian archives and the diaries of his contemporaries as well as his own private notes, this article examines the activities of Seraia Shapshal (1873-1961), focusing on his embeddedness both in the Qajar court and in Late Imperial Russia’s policy towards Iran during the period 1900 to 1908. The paper for the first time in Iranian studies sheds light in sufficient detail upon how Shapshal found himself in Persia and what enabled him to reach the highest levels of power at the Qajar court. In so doing, it also identifies his leading role in the June 1908 anti-constitution coup.
The title of this paper refers back to Albrecht Goetze’s masterpiece “The t‑Form of the Old Babylonian Verb” (Goetze 1936), wherein he made a successful attempt to distinguish derivational meanings of the t‑infix (t‑stems) from inflectional ones, which came to be known as the t‑Perfect. The OB (and OA) t‑Perfect (i.e., iptaras) is a manifestation of perfect as a cross-linguistic grammatical value, alongside, e.g., the English Present Perfect or the Castilian Spanish Pretérito Perfecto. The t‑Perfect was not a Proto-Semitic inflectional verb form but emerged in Akkadian via upgrade (i.e., inflectionalization) of the derivational verbal t‑affix that existed in PS as a part of the inherited Afroasiatic patrimony. In other words, the Gt Preterite shape (iptaras) penetrated the G-stem paradigm as a new tense form, the t‑Perfect, while one of the meanings of the Gt-stem became the semantic source of the Akkadian t‑Perfect.
The Festschrift containing 37 contributions celebrates the scholarly achievements of the two outstanding Assyriologists, Walter Sommerfeld (University of Marburg) and Manfred Krebernik (University of Jena). The primary focus of the volume corresponds to the main topics of interests of Professors Sommerfeld and Krebernik – Pre-Sargonic and Sargonic Mesopotamia and third millennium Syria. The volume also features a few contributions dealing with Sumerian language, Mesopotamian literature and the early history of Akkadian and its Semitic background.
Second half of 19th century–1945 was the period of drastic changes in Japanese society, the time of building the nation-state and the Great Japanese Empire, based on the unity of all Japanese people. Political reforms and the ideology of this period are well investigated. However, there are few studies of how the Japanese themselves and people's worldview have changed. The article focuses on the emotional transformations of the Japanese during this period and based on official historical documents, writings of publicists, poetry and prose. One consequence of such a rapid changes was, in particular, the dramatic increase in number of mental illnesses and suicides during the Meiji period. Shared exaltation was a characteristic feature of the era, the most important government decisions were made on a sudden impulse. Literature (especially the new shintaishi poetry contributed to the popular feelings excitement, and openly promoted xenophobia. The belief in the superiority of the Japanese spirit over matter dictated decisions that were insane in military-practical terms. Thus, in 1941 Japan attacked the main US naval base in the Pacific – Pearl Harbor. The decision that led to the collapse of the empire.
The book deals with the history of Japanese waka poetry (Japanese songs). The study is built around official anthologies "by imperial decree", which were collected from the beginning of the 10th century until the middle of the 15th century. There are 21 such anthologies in the history of poetry. The main issues considered in the study are: the variety of forms of Japanese poems, united by the concept of waka; composition of imperial anthologies; conducting poetry events - meetings and tournaments; composition of poems "on the topic"; rules for recording poems by poets at poetry meetings; "copyright" in Japanese medieval poetry, a list of "words that have a master". Japanese poets themselves, authors of the karon texts (“about poetry”) speak about poetry: Ki no Tsurayuki, Fujiwara no Kinto, Minamoto no Toshiyori, Fujiwara no Kiyosuke, Fujiwara no Shunzei, Kamo no Chomei, Fujiwara no Teika, Fujiwara no Tameie, Shotetsu. The book contains translations of several poetry collections and cycles that have not previously been translated into Russian.
The article is dedicated to the travel records in the diary of «Izayoi nikki» written by the nun Abutsu (1222? –1283), which reflected the great literary era. Abutsu describes his journey in dark colors, a drizzling rain, a traveling dress that does not dry out of tears, and endless fear for the future of poetry, for the lives of children and her own are the leitmotifs of the diary. By this diary, Abutsu declares her readiness to become an adherent of the poetic tradition of the house of Mikohidari after the death of her husband, the famous poet Fujiwara-no Tameie, and transfer this knowledge to their son Tamesuke. The travel records are the central part of the diary, small in volume, but containing an impressive number of quotations and allusions to the most significant works of predecessors. The diary is written in the travel diary paradigm, which formed by the second half of the Kamakura period, and is similar in composition to the diaries «Kaidōki» and «Tōkan kikō» written in the same 13th century. For 14 days, Abutsu takes notes on her forced journey from Heian to Kamakura: short prose sketches frame 55 poems of tankа that she composes while visiting or passing by famous places on the way Tōkaidō. The article also provides a commented translation of the travel records in Russian.
The article traces the history of the perception of one of the plots of Chinese historical anecdotes in texts created in Japan in the 12th -13th cc. in Japanese. The story of how Wang Ziyou went to his friend Dai Andao on a snowy moonlit night, but returned home without seeing him, is known from several Chinese sources, including Shi sho xin yu (5th c.) and Jin shu (dynastic history compiled in the 7th c.). The popularity of this story in Japan depended primarily on the fact that the story was put into a textbook used to teach boys to read Chinese, a collection of biographies of Chinese historical figures Meng qiu. In the 12th-13th cc. references to this story are to be found in the texts of various genres of Japanese literature. Among those genres are: waka poetry, including poems by the most authoritative poets of the time (Minamoto no Toshiyori, Fujiwara no Shunzei, Fujiwara no Teika) published in significant poetic collections, including Horikawa Hyakushu and the Roppyakuban Utaavase; the texts, which are conditionally included into the setsuwa genre, but represent a special group of works, where the history dedicated to China is accompanied by waka poems (Kara monogatari, Mōgyū waka); Mumyōzōshi, which is a composition discussing monogatari literature. A set of motifs referring to the plot of Wang Ziyou story created by the Japanese texts and commentaries to them, was significantly narrowed in comparison with the original story. The lonely contemplation of the moon is becoming the main element of history in Japanese sources.
The book combines works both by the leading modern Russian specialists in Japan and young scholars. The articles are dedicated to Japanese literature from ancient times to the 21st century, Japan’s religious and philosophical teachings, the history of scientific knowledge in Japan, Japanese music, painting, etchings, calligraphy, and everyday life. A special attention is paid to Japan’s place in the bigger world, as well as to the history of reflecting on Japan’s relationships with other countries, and particularly with Russia. The book includes translations of several Japanese literary masterpieces from the 9th to the 19th century.
The book is designed for all interested in the history and culture of Japan.
The Kara monogatari is a collection of 27 stories of various size. All stories are devoted to China. The plots are matched in a number of Chinese sources, including historical works, Tang and Sung novels, and the poems by Bo Juiyi. The time of the creation of Kara Monogatari has long been the subject of discussion, the issue has not been finally resolved even now. According to the version that is considered to be the most convincing today, the author of the work is Fujiwara no Shigenori, and the text dates back to the end of the Heian period (the second half of the 12th century). Kara monogatari is written in literary Japanese and contains allusions not only to Chinese sources, but also to Japanese poetic and prose texts. The story of the tragic love of Emperor Xuanzong and Yang Guifei occupies almost a quarter of the entire text of Kara monogatari. The interpretation of the events and characters is based on Bo Juyi’s poem Song of Everlasting Sorrow. The text of the story includes eight Japanese waka poems, which serve as a means of adaptation of the plot to the canons of Japanese literature. Despite the fact that Kara Monogatari is generally secular, the conclusion of the text is Buddhist, and does not have similarities in any of Chinese sources. It appears due to the fact that Buddhism had greater influence in Japan than in China.
Translation into Russian of the novel "Eien no miyako" of the prominent Japanese writer Kaga Otohiko.
This textbook is designed for students enrolled in the program "Language and Literature of Iran" who have already mastered the basics of the modern Persian language. The corpus of texts in classical Persian is one of the most important source-study bases for Iranian philology, and a fundamental study of classical Persian in theoretical and practical aspects is of great importance for the students who aim to specialize in this field. Meanwhile, the specific features of the classical language are usually noted in a list attached to the grammars of modern Persian; there are still no special manuals or textbooks combining the grammar topics with rich illustrative material. Our book on Classic Persian is a guide for students who read and translate a lot of monuments of Persian poetry and prose within the curriculum of the "Language and Literature of Iran" program. It will instill in them the skills of philological analysis they need to succeed in their profession.
The textbook consists of an introduction, thirty-three lessons and Appendix. Each lesson includes a main text (a fragment of Persian poetry or prose of the 9th – 15th cc.), provided with lexical and grammatical commentary, a grammar theme extensively illustrated with examples, one or two exercises on the grammar of the lesson, and additional text intended for students’ homework. The Appendix provides essential information on the metrics of aruz and patterns of rhyme used in Persian poetry; it gives basic metric paradigms for all the poems included in the lessons’ texts.
An attempt to be taken in the current paper can be considered as two-way analysis of the “Japanese trace” in the philosophy of Jacques Derrida: its reception and accommodation in Japan, first, and the the matisation of Japan in it, second. Definitely speaking, authors objectify the circumstances among which “Letter to a Japanese Friend” was written: its form, reason, addressing. Special attention has been paid to the problem of translation of “deconstruction” into Japanese (two variants of translation, presented by Yura Kimiyoshi and Maruyama Keizaburo, are considered), and to the context of the first publication of the “Letter” (in Japanese). Also a critical view of academic and more widespread acceptation of “deconstruction philosophy” in Japan is presented. The chronology of Derrida’s meeting with Japan as “the place of thinking and writing” is traced from “Tokyo Odyssey” (1984) up to the polemics with Japanese speakers at ANY-conference in Yufuin (1992). The analysis of Derridean way of conceptualisation of Japanese (“thinking Japanese”) is based on such texts as “Ulysse gramophone”, “Faxitexture” etc. and is dealing with such concepts as “aleatory”, “insularity”, “exposition”, “adventure”, etc. Furthermore, authors are focused on the role of promise, an answer to a call (voice) in Derrida’s intellectual biography and encourage to discover implicit but also possible perspectives of investigation – like oriental letter-writing, which can be a part of “derridean ecriture macro-project” – as sort of a promise and productive way of thinking.
The article is mainly based upon the analysis of two Japanese texts, Jinkokuki (“Records of the people and the provinces”, 16th century) and its later revised version Shin Jinkokuki (“New records of the people and the provinces”), created by a confucianist scholar and cartographer Seki Soko in 1701. The latter is often considered to be one of the first Japanese atlases as Seki not only revised and enlarged the original text, but also added maps to the descriptions of all of the Japanese provinces. Both texts are valued by Japanese scholars as fruitful sources for studies in the history of environmental psychology, or geopsychology, and a careful study of its’ content provides some new information on the ideas and concepts of natural habitats’ influence on the formation of behavioral models and personal qualities typical to the inhabitants of certain areas within Japan in 16th-18th centuries. In the first half of the 20th century some Japanese authors, many of them playing leading roles in the introduction of western science into Japan, were obsessed with the idea of formulating typically Japanese way of thinking and behaving, that would not only differentiate the Japanese from others, but also make the nation consider itself better than those others. The search for roots of yamato-damashii and Japanese uniqueness in terms of relations between the Japanese people and the country’s nature, just as an attempt to make some certain values of the samurai class nationwide revitalized interest in Jinkokuki and Shin Jinkokuki, which were used as an instrument of state propaganda. The second part of this article analyses works by Watanabe Tooru, a psychologist who issued the first scholary publication of these texts and who’s academic career seems to be a one long road to “Records of the people and the provinces”.
The scientific part of the volume is devoted to the study of such an important phenomenon as the culture of body. In recent years, this topic has gained great popularity in the humanities, which is largely due to modern worldviews, when the body is conceptualized as belonging to a person whose individual being is increasingly detached from the collective being. Japanese material demonstrates that this is a historically recent (post-war) phenomenon - after all, the Japanese had not used their body before, it was owned by the clan, family, and state. Such a detailed study on Japanese body culture did not exist before.
In the late XIX - early XX centuries we see active search for the national characteristics of the Japanese. This article analyzes the book of the famous expert of Japanese literature Haga Yaichi (1867-1927) “Ten Essays on National Character” (1907). This book was controversial with regard to the work of Kishimoto Nobuta "Five Features of the Japanese" (1902) who was a Christian. A number of similarities are observed in these works (they value highly cleanliness of the Japanese, their cheerfulness and activity, ability to adapt borrowings, the sense of beauty, politeness and etiquette behavior). However, there are radical differences, too. For Kishimoto “The Japanese” was an independent entity, and Haga viewed the Japanese in its relation to the state and as its function. Kishimoto talked about the character of the peaceful Japanese, and Haga Yaichi interpreted the peculiarities of the national character primarily from the point of the readiness for war and death for the emperor and the motherland. Kishimoto's writing was not popular and was well forgotten. As for the views of Haga Yaichi, they were adopted by propaganda institutions and became one of the main sources for “Kokutai no Hongi”, the fundamental text of Japanese totalitarianism.