This article looks at dipinti and graffiti by, and about, singers of psalms at the monastery of Apa Apollo at Bawit.
This study looks at a much-neglected monumental inscription by a PSC in early fifth-century Constantinople as evidence for shifting frames of courtly power and their public representation through epigraphy in late antique cityscapes.
The research reports on the history of teaching Thai as a foreign language under a bachelor's degree program (Soviet-style master's degree) at universities throughout the Russian Federation. The purposes of the research article are to study the development of teaching Thai as a foreign language in Russian from the second half of the 20th century (when the teaching of Thai language began in the Soviet Union) to the present day and to find out which universities are currently teaching the Thai language in Russia (as of Academic Year 2020/21). Data were collected from the articles in scientific journals, bulletins, websites of the universities and institutes that offer degree programs with the study of the Thai language, an interview with Russian teachers, researchers, heads of the departments and faculties where the Thai language is taught. The results attained by this study are the following. Thai as a foreign language began to be taught in Moscow in 1954. There is a slight tendency towards an increase in interest in teaching and learning the Thai language in Russian Higher Educational Institutions. Although the number of universities teaching the Thai language is unstable, after 2014 the interest of students wishing to study Thai as a foreign language at universities was the highest compared to previous years and compared to other Southeast Asian languages. However, regardless of the increasing interest in learning the Thai language, it is not able to compete with the Chinese, Japanese, Korean and Arabic languages, which remain more attractive for university applicants. From 1999 until recently, only three cities had departments for Thai Studies – Moscow, St. Petersburg, and Vladivostok. They are considered to be centers for the Thai language. However, as of 2020, the Thai language is taught only in St. Petersburg (Faculty of Asian and African Studies of St. Petersburg University), and in Moscow (ISAA Moscow State University, MGIMO University, Institute for Oriental and Classical Studies of HSE University).
The aim of this paper is to present a basic word list for Christian Urmi Neo-Aramaic provided with etymologies and a discussion of problematic positions in the list. This study, which uses a variant of Swadesh list of 110 basic words, is the first research outcome after creating an electronic corpus of literary Christian Urmi based on the texts published in Soviet Union in 1929 - 1938 (Novij Alfavit). With some exponents being uncertain (having two possible variants), the statistical results demonstrate that from 85,5 % to 87,3 % of the exponents have reliable Aramaic etymology. The percentage of loanwords derived from Persian is 3,6 % (or 4,5 %), from Kurdish — 1,8 % (or 2,7 %), from Azeri Turkish — 0,9 %. Six exponents have no clear etymology (5,5 %).
Not only is May otherwise undescribed in writing, but it is also the only small Vietic language documented and analysed in such detail, and one of few endangered Austroasiatic languages described so thoroughly. May is predominantly monosyllabic, yet retains traces of affixes and consonant clusters that reflect older disyllabic forms. It is tonal, and also manifests breathy phonation and vowel ongliding, yielding a remarkable complexity of syllable types. The lexicon, which is extensively documented, has a substantial archaic component. Consequently, the volume provides an invaluable resource for comparative historical and typological studies.
The ultimate source of inspiration for the present study is our ambition to offer a detailed description of the history of the Aramaic verbal system. A key event in this history is what Goldenberg used to call ‘the morphological revolution’, i.e. the shift, within Eastern Aramaic, from the Middle Aramaic2 verbal systems to those of Modern Aramaic. In the course of this shift, Eastern Aramaic gave up the inherited suffix conjugation3 (*qatala) and the prefix conjugation (*yaqtulu) and developed a new repertoire of verbal forms, all of whose bases were deverbal adjectives in earlier stages of Aramaic’s history.
The article serves as a starting point for a research project dedicated to the dichotomy of private and public, and its implications and dynamics in the late Roman republic – early Empire. The primary focus is on the roman private spaces in the villas and houses of the Vesuvian archaeological area. The main methodological approach is represented by the ‘space syntax” theory of B. Hillier and the “movement as memory” theory of D. Favro developed within the logics of Spatial Turn studies, further refined by A. Russel in her works on Roman public space
The article attempts to reconsider the problems connected with line 18 of the first Einsiedeln Eclogue. It is suggested that not only the notoriously problematic verb in line 17, but also the situation described in line 18 still remains unexplained: while inspiring one of the competing shepherds in a kind of poetic initiation, Apollo seems to be said to have ordered him to do something with a lyre, an obviously un-pastoral instrument in its associations. The reasons this lyre is referred to as “praised” are also not clear. The author of the article proposes to emend laudatam in line 18 to mandatam.
Academic Bibliography of Syriac and Christian Arabic Studies in Russian published in 2020.
Although the history of Russian-Iranian relations remains seriously understudied, few would refute the oppressive imperialist role played by Imperial Russia in Iran during the nineteenth century and the first two decades of the twentieth century. However, practically nothing has been written about the conceptual shifts which began to take place in Russia’s Persian policy immediately after the February Revolution of 1917. Little is known about the large-scale projects, through which Russia was to bring “its own democracy” to Iranian Azerbaijan and its other northern provinces, with further proliferation all over Iran. This was meant to facilitate Russia’s political and trade expansion down to the Persian Gulf, which had been the eventual goal for many decades. Drawing on unpublished documents from Russian, British and French archives, this paper studies the relevant correspondence between the Russian, British and French missions in Tehran and their central authorities, including the short-lived governments of Republican Russia, during the decade 1909-1919. In doing so, it analyses the local agency of the Russian diplomats in Iran, such as Vladimir Minorsky (1877-1966), in the emergence of these projects, and investigates the manifestation of symbolic capital and the productive interaction of power/knowledge relations.
During the Byzantine era, the Greek-speaking Church of the Empire exercised a decisive influence on formation of churches and states in the Pax Byzantina. Since that time the Septuagint has had a special place in liturgy and theology not only in Greek-speaking churches, but also in the whole family of Eastern Orthodox churches that trace their origin to the Byzantine commonwealth. The current chapter is mainly devoted to the fate of the LXX in the Eastern Orthodox churches after the Byzantine age and outside the Byzantine area, the two fields of study that are usually left untreated in Septuagint introductions and handbooks.
The following topics will be dealt with in the first part of this chapter: (1) OT canon of the Eastern Orthodox churches; (2) the printed editions of the LXX used by the Greek Orthodox churches since the establishment of the state of Greece; (3) the place of the LXX in translations of the Bible into modern Greek, Church Slavonic, and modern Russian; and (4) LXX-based Bible translations in the Orthodox Diaspora. The concluding part of this chapter will be devoted to the debates over the place of the Septuagint in the Orthodox Tradition.
This article contains the unpublished Syriac text of the Story of the Mystery Hidden in the Eucharistic Offering, an anonymous hagiographic composition that tells the story of the conversion of a Muslim king. The text of the Story, published on the basis of two manuscripts (Birmingham, Cadbury Research Library, Mingana Syr. 71, and Manchester, John Rylands Library, Syr. 59), is accompanied by an English translation and discussion of its message.
Obituary of the most prominent Byzantine scholar of our time
This chapter looks at a late antique iscribed imperial sacra from Ephesos and seeks to place it into the the "contested space" of the city riddled with the religious contestation between Chalcedonian and miaphysite communiites.
Russian migrant communities in Europe, as well as the USSR and European states’ policies towards them, were sufficiently studied in English-, French- and Russian-language relevant scholarship. However, West and South Asia received significantly less attention, although the region served the main transit zone in this process, especially the countries such as Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan and even British India. During the interwar period hundreds of thousands of migrants from Soviet Russia either passed through these Southern regions towards Europe and the United States or founded their migrant communities there. These migrants became an integral part of political activism professed by Russian émigré communities all over the world in the 1920s-30s. This quite often resulted in them being manipulated on a massive scale by other governments in their foreign policies toward Soviet Russia, especially by Britain – Russia’s traditional rival in the region. On the other hand, the positions of the Soviet government in political and military terms toward its southern neighbours were significantly stronger than those in Europe. Having an upper hand in its relations with these states, the Soviet government would resort to military invasions, large-scale intelligence operations, the massive bribing of local police and the military, particularly in the border areas, as well as to imposing inter-state border-control treaties, − all this done with the aim to neutralise the anti-Soviet émigré activities and to physically liquidate their active representatives abroad as well as to conduce to the repatriation of larger numbers for subsequent prosecution on the Soviet territory.
Methodologically drawing on the most recent works in Migration Studies, in general, and in Russian Emigré Studies, in particular, the current research studies migration from the USSR into the neighbouring countries of West and South Asia – one of the most strategically important regions in the twentieth century. Within the timeframe 1917-1930, research looks into the phenomena, such as displaced statehood, political activism and cross-cultural interaction in the context of the migration policies of the relevant states (Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Britain and the USSR). The primary-source base of this research consists of mostly untapped documents from British, Russian, French, Turkish, Azerbaijani, Iranian archives and the International Institute of Social History, Amsterdam, collections as well as memoirs and private correspondence of migrants themselves. While highlighting some commonalities, the paper argues that the situation of Russian migrant communities in West and South Asia diametrically differed from the one in Western Europe, and puts forward a detailed analysis of the causes, developments and outcomes of this phenomenon.
The article studies the prosody of Akkadian prepositions. The placement of prepositions within a written line of cuneiform texts is analyzed. The Old Babylonian data show that with rare exceptions the prepositions of certain type, namely those of (C)V-VC structure, like ana ‘to(wards)’ and ina ‘in’, were never written at the end of a line. This regularity is interpreted as evidence for the proclitic status of these prepositions: as the preposition formed an accentual unit with the following word, the scribes did not want to separate them by placing them on two consecutive lines. This rule was followed in the Old Babylonian texts from South Mesopotamia, but the documents from other regions of the same period treated the corresponding prepositions differently: they either conformed to South Mesopotamian patterns, but with certain exceptions, or they didn’t follow them at all. The writing habits reflected in the documents composed in later dialects, including Middle Babylonian, Middle Assyrian, Western Peripheral Akkadian, Neo-Babylonian and Neo-Assyrian, do not seem to show any regularity in regard to the placement of prepositions: prepositions could occupy any position within a written line.
The last two decades saw a dramatic increase in the number of papers published on the subject of stylometry, which is often narrowly understood as the task of identification of the author of a particular text fragment based on its stylistic properties. We present a new lightweight algorithm for stylometric identification of authors of Latin prose texts based on Burrows’s Delta, computed over relative frequencies of 244 manually selected genre and topic neutral words, and the Dirichlet distribution, whose parameters we estimate using an iterative maximum-likelihood algorithm. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method, we present a case study of 3000-word fragments of texts by 36 classical and medieval authors and show that our method performs on par with Random Forest, a powerful general-purpose classification algorithm. We provide summary statistics of our algorithm’s performance together with confusion matrices demonstrating pairwise discriminability of texts by different authors. The advantages of our method are that it is very simple to implement, very quick to train and do inference with, and that it is very interpretable since it is a model-based algorithm: precision of the fitted Dirichlet distributions directly corresponds to the stylistic homogeneity of the texts by different authors. This makes it possible to use the algorithm as a general research tool in Latin stylistics.
This paper explores the use of legal imagery in 5th century homilies by Christian authors from Asia Minor writing in Greek. I particularly focus on the idea of legally framed 'redemption' of sinners by Christ.
In the late first millennium ad, the Aral Sea region comprised two broad cultural zones: in the south the civilizations of Central Asia, in the north the steppe nomads. On their interface, in the delta of the Syr-Darya, there is an isolated cluster of urban sites, including Dzhankent. Fieldwork results show that in the ninth to eleventh centuries AD this site was a fortified urban settlement, but it had a predecessor from the sixth/seventh century onwards. Urban design and finds indicate close links to the southern civilization of Khwarazm, but also to local populations and Turkic nomads. It is suggested here that Dzhankent may originally have been a Khwarazmian trading post, later serving as nomad winter quarters while continuing as a transhipping point on the crossroads of two important trade routes. Location and functions also raise questions about the application of emporia typologies to this case.
Michael Rostovtzeff designed a model of cultural history of the North Pontic region that span from the Archaic period to the early Middle Ages, covered much of the Eurasian territory and tried to integrate the literary, epigraphic, numismatic and archaeological sources available in the early-20th century. In essence, he reduces the cultural development of the 1st millennium BC with an antagonism between a dominant Greek and a recessive Iranian culture, the latter represented by the ‘Scythians’, who were receptive of Hellenizing influences. In contrast, the period of Roman political domination is defined by a ‘Sarmatization’ in ethnic and cultural terms, which Rostovtzeff also calls ‘new Iranization’ and ‘Barbarization’ nearly without distinction. He extends this second phase into Late Antiquity, when ‘waves’ of Iranian migrations are seen as thoroughly impacting Western European civilization. This synthesis commanded so much respect that it continues influencing cultural history in Russian scholarship (and beyond), especially in Classical and Scythian-Sarmatian archaeology. Rostovtzeff's ideas root in concepts prevalent in his days. First, the etiological myth of the Russian Empire had already been well-established by the end of the 19th century, where the steppe corridor of Eurasia was considered a ‘world axis’, regularly inviting mass migration from East to West, substantially affecting the ethnic composition of the European population. At the same time, the steppes of Eastern Europe were seen as a ‘buffer zone’ that slowed down or mitigated the impact from the Far East. Second, the predominant role that Rostovtzeff ascribes to the common people in the context of cultural change ultimately goes back to Marxist theory. Third comes the direct association of certain elements of the archaeological material with specific ethnic groups, whence a change of material culture is regularly explained with the migration of peoples. Since such paradigms tend to be internalized at the early stages of a scholar’s socialization, they are slow to change, even when current international scholarship draws on more nuanced socio-cultural concepts and research methodology, largely incompatible with Rostovtzeff’s premises and conclusions.